What is the difference between a power battery and an energy storage battery?

Dec 14, 2021

What is the difference between a power battery and an energy storage battery?

What is the difference between a power battery and an energy storage battery?



Energy storage mainly refers to the storage of electrical energy. Energy storage is also a term in petroleum reservoirs, representing the reservoir’s ability to store oil and gas. Energy storage itself is not a new technology. However, it has just emerged from an industry perspective and is in its infancy.


So far, China has not reached the point where the United States and Japan treat energy storage as an independent industry and have introduced particular support policies. Especially in the absence of a payment mechanism for energy storage, the energy storage industry’s commercialization model has not yet taken shape.


Lead-acid batteries generally use for battery energy storage in high-power situations, mainly used for emergency power supplies, battery cars, and power plants to store surplus energy. Low-power applications can also use rechargeable dry batteries: such as nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, Etc. This article follows the editor to understand the advantages and disadvantages of nine battery energy storage.


Advantages and disadvantages of battery energy storage (analysis of nine types of energy storage batteries)


1. Lead-acid battery


The main advantage:


1. The raw materials are readily available, and the price is relatively low;


2. Good high-rate discharge performance;


3. Good temperature performance, can work in the environment of -40~+60℃;


4. It is suitable for floating charging with long service life and no memory effect;


5. Used batteries are easy to recycle, which is suitable for protecting the environment.


Main disadvantages:


1. Low specific energy, generally 30~40Wh/kg;


2. The service life is less than that of Cd/Ni batteries;


3. The manufacturing process is easy to pollute the environment, so it must equip with three waste treatment equipment.


2. Ni-MH battery


The main advantage:


1. Compared with lead-acid batteries, the energy density is much improved, the weight energy density is 65Wh/kg, and 200Wh/L increases the volume energy density;


2. High power density, high current charge, and discharge;


3. Good low-temperature discharge characteristics;


4. Cycle life (increased to 1000 times);


5. Environmental protection and no pollution;


6. The technology is more mature than lithium-ion batteries.


Main disadvantages:


1. The normal working temperature range is -15~40℃, and the high-temperature performance is poor;


2. Low working voltage, working voltage range 1.0~1.4V;


3. The price is higher than lead-acid batteries and nickel-hydrogen batteries. However, the performance is worse than lithium-ion batteries.


Three, lithium-ion battery


The main advantage:


1. Higher than energy;


2. High voltage platform;


3. Good cycle performance;


4. No memory effect;


5. Environmental protection, no pollution; currently one of the power batteries for electric vehicles with good potential.



Four, supercapacitor


The main advantage:


1. High power density;


2. Short charging time.


Main disadvantages:


The energy density is low, only 1-10Wh/kg. The supercapacitor’s cruising range is too short to be the mainstream power source for electric vehicles.


Advantages and disadvantages of battery energy storage (analysis of nine types of energy storage batteries)


Five, fuel cell


The main advantage:


1. High specific energy and long driving mileage of the car;


2. High power density, high current charge, and discharge;

3. Environmental protection, no pollution.


Main disadvantages:


1. The system is complex, and the technology maturity is low;


2. The construction of the hydrogen supply system is lagging;


3. There are high requirements for sulfur dioxide in the air. Due to severe domestic air pollution, fuel cell vehicles in the country have a short lifespan.


Six, sodium-sulfur battery




1. High specific energy (theoretical 760wh/kg; actual 390wh/kg);


2. High power (discharge current density can reach 200~300mA/cm2);


3. Fast charging speed (full 30min);


4. Long life (15 years; or 2500-4500 times);


5. No pollution and recyclable (Na, S recovery rate is nearly 100%); 6. No self-discharge phenomenon, high energy conversion rate;




1. The working temperature is high, and the operating temperature is between 300 and 350 degrees. When the battery is working, a certain amount of heating and insulation is required, and the startup is slow;


2. The price is high, ten thousand yuan per degree;


3. Poor safety.


7. Flow battery (vanadium battery)




1. Safe and deep discharge;


2. Large scale, unlimited storage tank size;


3. There are a significant charge and discharge rate;


4. Long life and high reliability;


5. No emissions and low noise;


6. Fast switching between charge and discharge, only 0.02 seconds;


7. Site selection is not restricted by region.




1. Cross-contamination of positive and negative electrolytes;


2. Some use expensive ion-exchange membranes;


3. The two solutions have enormous volume and low specific energy;


4. The energy conversion efficiency is not high.


8. Lithium-air battery


Fatal flaw:


Lithium oxide (Li2O), a reliable reaction product, accumulates on the positive electrode, blocking the contact between the electrolyte and the air, causing the discharge to stop. Scientists believe that lithium-air batteries’ performance is ten times that of lithium-ion batteries and can provide the same energy as gasoline. Li-air batteries absorb oxygen from the air to charge so that this battery can be smaller and lighter. Many laboratories worldwide are researching this kind of technology. However, it may take ten years to achieve commercialization if there is no breakthrough.


9. Lithium-sulfur battery (lithium-sulfur battery is a kind of high-capacity energy storage system with excellent development prospects)




1. High energy density, theoretical energy density can reach 2600Wh/kg;


2. Low raw material cost;


3. Less energy consumption;


4. Low toxicity.


Although lithium-sulfur battery research has gone through decades, and many results have been achieved in the past ten years, there is still a long way to go before practical applications.


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